Thursday, 24 November 2011

The Negro and the language

Assignment- E-C 305 Post-colonial literature
Topic- the Negro and the language
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.
SEM - 1
Batch- 2011-12

Submitted to,
Dr.Dilip barad,
Bhavnagar University,

Black skin and white mask
Frantz Fanon was born in Martinique in 1925 and went to school there first, before moving to metropolitan France to continue his education during the second world war, He served in the free French Army, which took him for the first time to North Africa after the war, he studied medicine any psychiatry at the university of Lyons, completing his training in 1951. Two years later he was appointed to run the psychiatry department of hospital in Algeria; and he soon joined the Algerian liberation movement, the national Liberation front, contributing to its underground newspaper. In 1961, he was appointed ambassador to Ghana by the Algerian provisional government but he died of Leukemia that year.
The Black man/Negro and language:
Language essential for providing us with one element in understanding the black man’s dimension of being for others, it being understood that to speak is to exist absolutely for the other.
The Negro possesses 1250 dimension   one with his fellow Blacks, the other with the whites. A Black man behaves differently with a white man than he does with another black man. The problem we shall tackle in this chapter is as follows the more the black Antillean assimilates the French language, the whiter he gets. Ex. the closer he comes to becoming a true human being. We are fully aware that this is one of mans attitudes faced with being. A man who possesses a language possesses as an indirect consequence the world expressed and implied by this language.
There is the town, the country, the capital. There are the inhabitants of Lyon in Paris. He will boast of how clam his city is, how bewitchingly beautiful or the banks of the Rhone.
The Negro man who has been to the metro pole is a demigod. On this subject shall indicate a fact that must have struck my fellow islands. The Negro man meets a friend or colleague, gone is the expansive bear hugs instead our ‘future’ candidate bows directly. The black man Antillean, prisoner on his islands, lost an atmosphere without the slightest prospect.
The black  man entering France changes because for him the  metro pole is the holy of  holies; he changes not only because that’s where his doctors, his departmental superiors and innumerable little potentates come from, the staff  sergeant “ fifteen years on the job” to be gendarme from patisseries. There is a kind of spell cast from afar, and the black man who leaves in one week for the metro pole creates an aura of magic around him where the words Paris.
The African today that the feeling of inferiority by blacks is especially evident in the educated black man who is constantly trying to overcome it. We would like to try to show why the black man posits himself in such a characteristic way with regard to European languages.
The black man likes to palaver and it is only a short step to a new theory that the black man is just a child. Psychoanalysis has a field day and the word “morality” is soon pronounced here we are interested in the black man confronted by the French language.
   There is nothing comparable in the French Antilles; the official language is French elementary school teachers keep a close eye on their pupils to make sure they are not speaking Creole. When an Antillean with a degree in philosophy says he is not sitting for the aggression because of his color, my response is that the black man is as intelligent as any white man, my response is that neither did intelligence save anybody, for if equally among men is proclaimed in the name of intelligence and philosophy, it is also true that these concepts have been used to justify the extermination of man.
We have said that the black man was the missing link between the ape and man the white man of course and only on page 108 of his book does sir Alan Burns come to the conclusion, “we are unable to except as scientifically proven the theory that the black man is inherently inferior to the white or that he comes from a different stock” let us add it would be easy to prove the absurdity of such statements as“ The Bible says that the black and white races shall be separated in heaven as they are on earth and the native admitted to the kingdom of heaven will find themselves separated to certain of our fathers mansions in the new Testament ” or else. We are the chosen people look at the color of our skin; others are black or yellow because of their sins.
It would be easy to prove and have acknowledged that the black man is equal to the white man but that is not our purpose what we are striving for is to liberate the black man from the arsenal of complexes that germinated in a colonial situation.
There are whites who interact sanely with blacks; those are precisely the cases that will not be taken into account. It’s not because my patients liver is functioning normally that his kindly are healthy.
Speaking to black people in this way is an attempt to reach down to them, to make them feel at ease to make oneself understood and reassure them consulting physicians know this, twenty European patients comes and go; please have a seat now what’s the trouble ? What can I do for you today?
In comes a black man or an Arab! Sit down, old fellow. Not feeling well? Where is hurting? When its not! If the person who speaks to a man of color or an Arab in pidgin does not see that there is a flaw or a defect in his behavior, then he has never paused to reflect.
They have a clear conscience when the answer comes back along the same lines “you see, I told you so. That’s how they are, if the opposite case, you need to retract your pseudopodia and behave like a man. The entire foundation collapses. A black man who says! “I object, sir, to you, calling me, my old fellow” now there’s something new.
“There is nothing comparable when it comes to the black man. He has no culture, no civilization, and no long historical past”.
The black man has to wear the livery the white man has fabricated for him. Look at children’s comic books all the blacks are mouthing the ritual, yes, boss. In films the situation is even more actuate.
In France, where go million citizens are colored. Anyone would dub the same idiocies from America. The black man has to be portrayed in a certain way, and the same stereotype can be found from the black man in same pitied. To speak a language is to appropriate its world and culture. The Antillean who wants to be white will succeed, since he will have adopted the cultural tool of language.
If should be understood that historically the black men wants to speak French since ,if is the key to open doors which only fifty years ago still remained closed to him.  

Teaching English as a second language in India; focus on Objectivities

Assignment- E-C 304 English Language Teaching
Topic- Teaching English as a second language in India; focus on Objectivities
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.
SEM - 1
Batch- 2011-12

Submitted to,
Mr. Devarashi Mehta
Bhavnagar University,

Teaching English as a Second Language in India: Focus on Objectives

The objectives of language teaching:
The global objectives of language teaching can be defined as helping children learn a language or language to perform a variety of functions. These use of language for phatic communion and a network of communicative user to its use at the highest level of “cognition”, “catharsis” and “self-expression” underlying these functions are tow fundamental functions helping children learn now to ask question, the most important intellectual ability man has yet developed, and helping children use this language effectively in different social networks.
A system-network language in a multilingual setting, each language in this network has a function-determined value of the other languages in the system network in terms of its-own policy of language planning. But the system network in terms policy of language planning, but the society or government must realize that this assignment of a new value o language will produce a chain reaction in the network. The values of the other languages in the network are bound to undergo changes. The notion of “link language” or “lingua-franca” has an important significance in the multilingual setting. It encourages wider mobility, notional interrogation, and a sense of tolerance. It enriched other languages in contact and gets multilingual is a powerful way of enriching the linguistic repertoire of individuals. These resource offered by plurality of language can be used for rapid social and economic changes and modernization programmer.

            Learners are not just passive recipient of socially accepted languages patterns. They play an active role in this teaching learning process. They actively strain filter and recognize what they are exposed to. Their imitations are not photographic reproductions but artistic recreations. The learners are meaning-makers. The main objectives of every level of teaching should be to help learners learn how to draw out their latent creativity. Every learner is born with a built-in language-learning mechanism. This mechanism gets activated when the learner’s s exposed to that language. What is, therefore, essential is to create an atmosphere where learning can take place.
Children learn the language they hear around them. A rich variety of linguistic material is as important in first language acquisition as in second language learning. The teaching of English as has often been less successful that it might have been, as a result of the restricted variety of linguistic contexts with which students are provided. Learners should ideally be exposed to a variety of contextualized language materials. They must hear and see language in action. The emphasis should shift from encourage in learning to memorize paradigms and them interact with people using different registers of language in a variety of situation. In that process the learners internalize not only the linguistic but also the sociolinguistic rules of the game, system which enables them to focus on “what to say when and how”. It should also enable them to organize words in sentence and sentences in texts effectively keeping in view “the topic of discourse”, “addresser-addressee relationship” and “socio-cultural setting”, learning a language is not just a question of learning to produce sentences and utterance which are grammatical and acceptable they must also b appropriate. Each of the four major skills; reading, writing, listening and speaking and understanding, is composed of a hierarchy of sub-skills.
            What is necessary is to identify the sub-skills that are to be strengthened and explained first language, a second language our foreign language.
Second Language:
            Second language may be used as an auxiliary or associate language as a functions which are not normally performed by first language. For a vast majority of educated people living in turns and cities, English as s second language functions primarily as an interstate or international link language. Some of them also use it as an international language of knowledge, trade and industry. An important question here is, is L2 the main or associated medium of instructions at all levels or of a particular level.
            The objectives have to be formulated in the light of what we perceive our needs for English to be in a multilingual setting, of both the national and individual levels. This is related to the following questions what are the roles of Hindi, English, regional languages, classical languages, foreign languages, and languages of the minority group in our multilingual setting? What are the topics and situational that will necessitate the use of English?
            What is the kind and amount of English that the learners will need? At the national level, English must serve as our “window on the world” as the language in which nearly all contemporary knowledge of science and technology, trade and commerce, political science, economics and international relations English will be important for industrial and economic development. It will function as the “language of development”. Our scientists, technologists, engineers, doctors and economists must be able not only to have access to professional literature in English but also to contribute to it and to communicative in other counterparts in other countries. The continuation of English seems important if our science and technology, trade and commerce, are be truly international. It is hearing to not that English based-Indian bilinguals constitute the third and technical manpower in the world.
            “English has important functions to serve internally in addition on the world”. English may be continuing to the medium of instruction in several faculties at the college level. These students will need a greater proficiency in the skills listening, writing and (perhaps) speaking than students being taught through other languages.
            At the level, English continues to be “the language of opportunity” and “the language of upward social mobility”. Any individual seeking socioeconomic advancement will find ability in English an asset. It is clear, that, the English has important functions in communication will continue to be at a premium, and teaching will have to try to import to retain minimal competence in these skills.
            The primary aim of teaching English as a second language at the secondary level should be to give the learners an effective mastery of the language, that is, to help them acquire.
            Ability to read easily, and with understanding books in English written within a presented range of vocabulary and sentence structure and to read with good understanding easy unsimplified texts on familiars topics, fully glossed and annotated in their known language.
            The ability to understand a talk in English on a subject on general experience and interest, clearly spoken and restricted in vocabulary and sentence structure to the range of the syllabus, the ability to write comprehensibly in English, and without gross errors, on a familiar topic which lends itself to expression without the range of vocabulary and sentence structure that has been taught, an ability to carry on comprehensibly a conversation in English on a topic fully within the range both of their experience and interest and well within the range of the active command postulated by the syllabus. 
We must ensure that English:
1]. Function as a “service – language” for the various categories of learners.
2]. Promotes intellectual and cultural awareness of the contemporary world we live in and,
3]. Provides “information content ’’ necessary for the modernization of our country.
    It is also important that special opportunities are made available to help the weaker sections of our society to acquire advance adequate competences in English so that they do not remain forever disadvantages in areas of higher education and in terms of upward social mobility. In order to achieve these objectives we will have to introduce changes in our syllabus, methodology of language teaching, materials, training programmers attitudes to learners and their language and the system of evaluation.     We may need to change the school its physical structure, its atmosphere, its functions, its facilities, its roles and responsibilities. Teachers and learners are the greatest resources available to any society.
      English is now widely taught as subject of study in different languages teaching situations of different levels in India.
          It is essentially taught as a second language in different language teaching and learning situations. In view of the lack of an overall language policy, and clear cut curriculum planning, the teaching of English as a second language faces a lot of challenges and does not seem to serve a useful purpose. Here an attempt will be made to indicate soon of the prominent problems the teaching of English as a second language is conformed with and to make some suggestions for teaching English in school educations.
As a second language teaching situation, it is regarded necessary to import instruction in the four basic language skill – [1] listening, [2] speaking, [3] reading, [4] writsing. The language curriculum objectives of different skills have their different levels.
 To achieve the above objectives, there is a need to use selected reading materials to supplement the texts used in class more time should be devoted to general reading. This would help the students to expand their knowledge and experience of the language by reading at their own pace.
The complex grammatical structures need to be explained preferably in their actual use in the text. Oral drills and written exercises can be use in reinforcing them. The development of oral skill should form integral part of the course both accuracy and fluency should aim at students should be function in natural situation.
Teaching English as a second language as illustrated above can be achieved in individualized programmed instruction for those students who are unable to attend formal classes in any institution. In following individualized programmed instruction in English, the main learning effort required from the students involves the use of audio-visual presentation of lesson material, reinforced through drills and exercises in the in the language laboratories.
So English will continue to play an important role in education in India for years to come. It is imperative to make the teaching of it as effective as possible at different levels. The language policy defining the role of English curriculum planning, designing of syllabuses, selection and gradation of instructional materials including audio-visual aids, and teaching methodology deserve to be given a serious thought keeping in views aims and objectives for teaching English.

The old man and sea’’ as a Tragedy

Assignment- E-C 303 American Literature
Topic- “The old man and sea’’ as a Tragedy
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.
SEM - 1
Batch- 2011-12

Submitted to,
Dr.Dilip barad,
Bhavnagar University,
 “The old man and the sea’’ as a Tragedy.  
About the writer:
            “The Old Man and the Sea” was written by Ernest Hemingway. Ernest Hemingway had been an international literary celebrity for more than a quarter of a century whenever people need books and in a good many places where people did not read of all the very name of Hemingway was a legend. It was a name associated with war and courage with love and violence with beauty and death. Hemingway was aware of the danger of celebrity the fact that success all too often destroyer the very talent statement is a capsule definition of what he and other writers in the united states and abroad were trying to achieve  during the First World War period.
About the novel:
            “The Old Man and the Sea” appeared in 1952, and this novel was written by Ernest Hemingway. In a sense, The Old Man and the Sea is capsulated Hemingway that is in its poetic brevity. It is the stilled essence of the writer’sss most profound beliefs concerning human existence. The main characters of this novel:
  1. Santiago
  2. Manolin
  3. The tourists
Brief information about the characters:
  1. Santiago
Santiago is a poor peasant fisherman, “thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles in the back of his neck”. His body bears the marks of his trade for example; the skin of his face bears brown blotches, caused by the burning reflection of the sun’s rays upon the tropical sea. In addition, his hands reveal “deep-creased scars from handling heavy fish on the cords.”  Everything about him, except his eyes, testifies to his age. His poverty is equally evident. He lives in a shack made from palms of furniture, a bad, a table and a chair.
  1. Manolin
The reader learns little of the boy, Manolin, in terms of concrete detail. We know that he has customarily been Santiago’s companion in fishing. Their association begins very early.
Manolin is a young man, based on someone Hemingway knew in Cuba who was then in his twenties. In the story, however, Manolin is referred to as “The boy” like Santiago; Manolin comes from a family of fisherman and has long admired Santiago as a masterful practitioner of his trade.
  1. The Tourist
The unnamed female tourist is important since in her mistaking the carcass of the marlin as that of shark, she acts as a foil for Santiago’s extraordinary knowledge of the sea.
The Old Man and the Sea is, as story very good, sweetly and smoothly told, the conflict is resolved in to a struggle between a man and a force which he scarcely comprehends, but which he strives against.
The old Man and the Sea, while reasserting the set of values, Hemingway is built upon the great abstractions- the love and truth and honour and loyalty and pride and humanity.
      The old man is a fisherman and he is also a teacher one who has taught the boy not only now to fish- that is, how to make a living- but now how to behave as well, giving him the pride and humility necessary to a good life. During the trails with the great fish and with the shark his hands pain him terribly, and his chest constricts and he spits blood. He hooks the fish at noon, and at noon of the third day he kills heart. As he sees the second and calls aloud “Ay” and Hemingway comments “There is no translation for this word and perhaps it is just such a noise as a man might make in voluntarily”. The old man shoulders his mast and goes upward from the sea toward his hut, and when he reaches the hut lies on the bed with his arms out straight and the palms of his hands up.
The old man and the Sea as a tragedy we can say that at the time,
Santiago knew that the fish was too big to bring into the boat. Therefore, he lashed it securely to the side and prepared to return to the harbor. To give himself strength, he ate small shrimps from the yellow gulf weed that floated by, and drank half of one of the two drinks of water he still had felt in his bottle.
The skiff sailed well, in spite of the attached weight. Towards the end of his battle, when he had been feeling so badly, it had all seemed like a dream. Now by looking at the fish and of his cut hands and by the feel of his back, he knew it had truly happened.
As he sailed, his head started to become a little unclear, with the fish alongside the boat he was not sure whether he was bringing the fish in, or whether it was bringing him in, one thing he was sure: “I am only than him through trickery and he meant me no harm.”
The first shark struck an hour later attracted by the spilled blood of the fish, feeling helpless; Santiago prepared his harpoon to battle the marauder. As the shark tore into the dead fish, the old man pierced the attacker’s brain with the harpoon. The shark was killed, but not before it had torn forty pounds of meat from the great fish. Santiago felt as though he himself had been hit.
It had, he thought, been too good to last, he wished that he were at home and had never hooked the fish, but he comforted “Man is not made for defeat.”
His own thoughts and baseball were all he had left. He knew now that his task was hopeless. When he reached the inner currents, there would be other sharks, however, he decided, it was a sin to be without hope, though he did not really understand a sin in keeling the fish. Yet, it seemed to be part of his destiny and the destiny of the fish. Moreover, he had loved, and still, loved, the fish. Perhaps that meant that his act was not a sin. Nevertheless, he reflected, he had enjoyed killing the shark, for he had killed it well.
After two hours, he saw two more sharks, he prepared for the coming battle by taking up aura to which he had lashed his knife, for the shark he had killed had disappointed into the sea with his encounter from under the skiff forcing Santiago to bring the boat around in order to reach the attacker. The old man killed both great fish, everything now felt wrong, and he wished that it had been a dream. “I should not have gone out so far, fish” he observed.
There was nothing left to do but to get his bleeding hands ready for the next attacker killed it, but snapped his knife in the process. His only remaining weapons were the gaff, the two hours. The killer and a short club. He knew that the sharks had beaten him but he decided to fight as long as he had weapons. Two more sharks appeared to attack the fish. They were successful in tearing at its flesh. And Santiago was only able to drive them off. Now, he did not want to look at the great fish for he knew that half of it had been destroyed. He expressed his feelings aloud to the fish. “Fish that you were. I am sorry that I went too far. I ruined us both.”
Around ten o’clock at night, he saw the reflected glare of the lights of Havana. By midnight, he was fighting again, and this time he struggle was truly hopeless. Sharks appeared in a pack and left only when nothing remained of the great fish.
Santiago knew then that he was truly beaten. He settled back, without thoughts or feelings to bring the boat to the harbor. “It is easy.” He thought, “When you are beaten. I never knew how easy it was.” Nothing had really beaten him he concludes; he had simply gone out too far.
The old man and the sea help in the identification of the novel themes. Probably the most common and clearest interpretation of the old man and the sea sees the book as an allegory of man’s struggle with life. Thus, Santiago is all men who confront the representative man through the parallels drawn between himself and Christ like Christ; he has both conviction and humanity. Also like Christ, he suffers alone for his faith.’  The faith of Santiago is, of course, far from orthodox religious faith. “It includes his pride in his vocation and his endure like Christ Santiago suffers, he too has torn hands and a back which knows pain. Yet neither is defeated. Both are, in a sense, beaten, Christ is crucified, and Santiago loses his great marlin. But even as Christ experienced the resurrection, so we are confident Santiago will rise once more to meet the future, for the boy will join him again and bring Santiago. While being representative man in grappling with life’s mysteries alone and enduring alone is exceptional man. His heart may of creation as his sympathy for but he is profoundly and defiantly “a strange old man.”
However, the story is not a Christian allegory. The Christian view of the universe is founded upon the proposition of the existence of god, whose benevolent purpose is supreme. No such purposes govern the universe of Santiago. His world is a mysterious, ambiguous govern the universe of Santiago. His world is of a cruelty and nobility, of death and benevolence. The sea, as both el mar and la mar is the image of this ambiguity. The same irony pervades the fisherman’s relationship wit the marlin. He loves and respects it; it is his brother. But he will kill it. For that is the nature of life.
…everything kills everything else in some way. Fishing kills me exactly as it keeps me alive.”
The novel has also, been interpreted as allegory in a different direction. The interpretation here sees the book as a parable of Hemingway’s own struggle with his art.
The old man and the sea, was crucial for the writer in his career. Magnificently what had failed in the last work succeeded splendidly in the next? Hemingway has never written more universally or meaningfully of himself than in this most externalized of all his stories like Santiago determining to justify his reputation as a skilled fisherman.
“The Old Man and the Sea is, from one angle, an account of Hemingway’s personal struggle, grim resolute and eternal, to write his best with his seriousness, his precision and his perfectionism. Hemingway saw his craft exactly as Santiago sees his. The fishing and the fisherman turn out to be metaphors so that they need almost no translation. Santiago is a master who sets his lines with more care than his colleagues. But he has no luck and more. It could be better to be lucky he thinks, but he will be skillfully, exact instead; then when the luck comes he will be ready for it. Once he was very strong. “The champion”. They called him, and he was beaten many good fisherman and some great ones.
“But there is only you.” Still there are many who do not know this, and his whole reputation is gravely imperiled by a streak of bad luck. And so the ex-Champion musters his confidence: “I may not be as strong as I think… but I know many tricks and I have resolution.”
Santiago succeeds gloriously in his self-appointed task is plain. He endures with fortitude. Santiago suffers triumphantly. And, in the end, he traces the future. The fault he has committed is no sin. It has been to much; he went out to far. His manhood to the limit and, in so doing, he brought misfortune upon himself and the great fish. But the lasting impression is one of the splendors of the old man’s daring and not of the folly of his endeavor.
Thus, in his allegory, Hemingway has displayed for: all to see the glory that is man, Proud and courageous, resolute and defiant.
The moral is not trivial. It shapes and fashion man’s approach to the universe and dictates his stance in the worlds. Thus, “Santiago sees it as an aspect of the human tragedy.”
The creatures of the world are like man. They inhabit the same universe and the must engage in the same struggle. The small, tried warbler that visits the skiff and the magnificent marlin that struggle so gloriously really share the same struggle is Santiago’s also. All that the can do is to fulfill his appointed task, born a fisherman, his prey. If he does it well, he will prove what a man is.’
            Thus, there is no egoism or arrogance in Santiago’s confidence he has in his artistry. But his chief response is one of humble love and respect for his ocean brothers. The novel is thus a moving expression of that tragic kinship which unites all creation.

What is Research? Discuss its characteristic

                      Assignment- E-C 302 Research Methodology
Topic- What is Research? Discuss its characteristic.
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.
SEM - 1
Batch- 2011-12

Submitted to,
Dr.Dilip barad,
Bhavnagar University,
The use of scientific research was initially made in physics and later on it was extended to natural sciences and social sciences. The scientific research has played a significant role to achievining human progress. The advances in research in the fields of physics, biology, social science and psychology have largely contributed to the creation of free knowledge, new invention and new as well as methodologies for carrying out further research.
                  The scientific research has been playing an important role in the progress and enrichment of education and educational research.
                  The dictionary meaning of research is constructed as invention or investigation or formal study or scientific enquiry or discovery. The formal meaning of research is invention or scientific investigation or scientific enquiry to extract truth. Standard dictionary described research as “Endeavour to discover new ideas by scientific way”.
                      According to advanced learner’s Dictionary, research means “A careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”
             In the meaning of “Research” given above three words are important:
1 Study
2 Inventions
3 Discoveries
         1 Invention
           Invention is the application of an idea or thinking something new for example a new machine or an Instrument or a new way of doing a task.
2   Discovery
                 Discovery is an accidental unintentional and unexpected search for the first time without any problem.
      Research is nothing but a scientific study in order to discover new facts. It has a problem and deals with activities and solutions.  
              Research is a planned activity for solving a problem which is purposeful, interactional with respect to outcomes. Research is a systematic investigation of a problem in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
 Definition of Research given by some well-known Thinkers:
1 F.M. Kerliger:-
      Scientific research is a systematic controlled empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical proposition about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.
Characteristic of Research:-
1 Research generates new knowledge
    Research generates new knowledge that any person who research any topic or task. He can work on this topic and he collects the all things to relate to their topics or task. So he can get maximum details or data collect about their topic. So that person can get knowledge about their topics on research. So Research generates new knowledge.
2 Research is skill full or systematic
  Research is skill full or systematic that means a person who are prepare a research that is a skill full and his work of style is systematic.
3 Research is logical and Objective
          Research is logical and Objective means the science and art of reasoning correctly and objective means having existence outside. He mind Research is logical because a person who prepared a research who is a logical person or objective person.
4 Research endeavors to collect and organize data in quantitative terms:-
  Research endeavors to collect and organize data in quantitative terms. That means a person who prepared a research that person want to try that he can got all correct or true important detail about his topic and he organize data by in quantities terms.
5 Research requires courage and entrepreneurship:-
            Research requires courage and entrepreneurship courage means bravery, boldness, or fortitude means a person who want to make a research the person become courage means Research requires courage and entrepreneurship.
6 Research requires rigorous Standards:-
     Research requires rigorous Standards means a person who make a research on his choice topics, which that person research shall be standards means his all details, data or information should be right or standards. So that we can say that research requires rigorous Standards.
7 Research a procedure of carefully representing and recording documents:-
           Research a procedure of carefully representing and recording documents means a person who makes a research paper so he should his all representing and recording documents.
8 Research aim is extracting and generalizing common Principles:-
  Research aim is extracting and generalizing common Principles means a person who prepared a research his research main aim is that person main aim should be extracting and generalizing common principles means he that person should try to get original or true important details, data or any other kinds of information related to his topics should be generalizing common principles and they should try to follow the principles of a research.
9 Research is meticulously and carefully planned:-
      Meticulously means over careful or scrupulous means a person that they prepared their Research should be true or he must be careful about their research and they should prepared their research carefully planned. So Research is meticulously and carefully planned.
10 Research requires perfect accuracy in collection, recording and analyzing the data:-
           Research requires perfect accuracy in collection, recording and analyzing the data means a person prepare a research before they prepare their research they should get information, or details about should to his topic he get original information should written in their research paper and their collection of information, he should analyzing his topics in details so research requires perfect accuracy in collection, recording and analyzing the data.
 11 Research is free from emotions:-
         Research is free from emotions means a person who tries to prepare their research in their research they should not emotions because he want to try that he collect all related details true and they should not be emotions.  So Research is free from emotions.
 12    Research is an inquiry or investigation:-
             Research is an inquiry or investigation means be good or well. A Researcher should attempt to every detail about their topic and they should try to investigation about their topics original’s details, or data, or information about their topics. So Research is an inquiry or investigation.
13 Research describes the problem:-
        Research describes the problem means a researcher should tries to clarify that problem in society about the related to their topics and they should describes the problem about their topic. So Research describes the problem.
       Thus, research means a careful investigation or inquiry specially their research for new facts in any branch of knowledge. The efforts works making the relation have started bearing fruits.

Various themes of the poem from The Waste Land

Assignment- E-C 301 the Modernist Literature
Topic- Various themes of the poem   from The Waste Land
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.
SEM - 1
Batch- 2011-12

Submitted to,
Dr.Dilip barad,
Bhavnagar University,

Various themes of the poem   from The Waste Land                                                                                        
T.S Eliot’s The Waste Land is an important landmark in the history of English poetry and one of the most talked about poems of the 20th century. It is a long poem of about four hundred forty lines in five parts entitled
1] The Burial of the dead
2] A game of Chess
3] The Fire sermon  
4] Death by water and
5] What the thunder said
The details are following:
1] The Burial of the dead:
The opening  part of the  “The Waste land’’ is entitled  the burial of the dead ; it refers [1] The burial of dead fertility god ; [2]The burial service for the dead perform by the Christian church. In both the cases death is believed to be followed by rebirth. But the inhabitants of the contemporary   waste land are spiritually dead and the very thought of the rebirth or spiritual re-generation is painful to poem. April is the cruelest month for the denizens of the modern waste land, for it signifies re-birth, and they prefer ‘winter’ or spiritual death for re-birth .and any spiritual effort is hateful to them. April is the cruelest month and winter is welcome for it keeps them warm and no effect is needed on their part. The contrast with the opening lines of Chaucer’s prologue is obvious. April mixes memory with desire. The father was often murdered by the son jealous of his prerogatives, and the god is simply the father-substitute; or it may be April is cruel. For it reminds them of their spiritual death, makes them desirous of regeneration, but since regeneration requires effort, the desire is painful for them.
The shadow of the rock is immortal and internal and so different from the shadow of man which is his death in youth [Morning] .It is before him ready to meet him. ‘A handful of dust ’. Is ‘man’ who is afraid both of death and who can find freedom from fear only by approaching him for his forgiveness?
To conclude in the first section the general theme of ‘The waste land’ has been stated. It has been stated that life in the contemporary world is a life in death. It is living death.
[2] A Game of Chess:
The second part of the poem is fittingly entitled ‘A game of Chess’. It is explores the failure of sex relationship in the modern waste land. Sex has become a matter of moves and counter moves between men and women. It has been became a more source of pleasure and has lost its spiritual significances. As a result, family life both in high and low. Society has reached a statement and life has become a round of dull routine. Eliot traces the futility, boredom, neurosis of modern life to the perversion of sex- relationship.
The Second now moves to a tavern and we get a picture of statement at the other end of the social scale resulting from a perversion of sexual values. It is a friend of Lil who tells someone women assembled in a city pub that Lil’s husband. The last line ‘Good night, ladies’ etc.  so that is the ‘A game of Chess’.
3. The Fire Sermon: 
                            The title of this section is taken from the famous sermon of Lord Buddha in which the world is shown burning with lust and passion and hatred and a thousand other evils. It also reminds one of the confessions of St. Augustine wherein he represents lust as burning.
The sector is a sermon, but it is a sermon by examples only. The sterile burning of lust is brought out by different sex experience in the contemporary waste land.
The part opens with Tiresias surveying the Thames scene in the autumn. The leaves have fallen down and the wind moves without any rustle. The Thames is deserted. In the summer, it had been the haunt of nameless ladies in search of momentary pleasure and the rich sons of business directions equally in need of pleasure. After having their round of pleasure, they have all left. The river is stream all over with empty bottles, cigarette, cases, papers, handkerchief etc. the re4minders of the orgy of the water is a source of purification and regeneration but the degeneration-modern man does not realize this and so does not hesitate to defile the purity of the river which, “sweets oil and tar.” The pollution of the river symbolizes spiritual degeneration. The river scene puts us in mind of a similar scene in Spenser’s Prothalamim in the Spenser’s scene the nymphs and their lovers prepare for wedding but in the contemporary scene they assemble there merely for an orgy of pleasure. The contrast is jarring, and it is a measure of the 20th century.
There was a time when Queen Elizabeth and her favorite Earl of Leicester used to sail on the river in their beautiful barge. Its front was golden, and it was all colored red and gold. It sailed briskly as the South west wind filled the sails and there was swift current in the water. As they sailed down the river they could hear the sound of bells coming out of the white towers of the………………………..
The poet is reminded of the words of St. Augustine in his confessions. “To Carthage them I came, where a caldron of unholy loves sang all about my ears.”  The entire modern waste land is burning in the fire of lust and save their souls. As it is said, they are all are burning in this fire. To whatever section or stratum of society they may belong, they are equally lustful and degeneration. They are all burning.
[4]Death by Water
Phlebas   was a Phoenician sailor who was famous in ancient times, for their skill in navigation. Now he has been dead   for   a fortnight. Now he no longer remembers the cry of gulls which he used to hear during his voyages. Now he has also forgotten all about the rise and fall of the waves of come to an end. His bones were caught by a current of water under the sea. As his body rose and fell with the current, he passed the various stages of a man’s    life from youth to old age. At last his body was caught in a whirlpool and was seen no more. Thus   ended his earthly existence we should learn a lesson from his tragic death. Whether we are believers or non- believers, we should not seek to control our destiny and drive ourselves the boat of our life. If we do so we shall meet the tragic fate of Phlebas. Who was once as tall and handsome as we are? We should have faith in God, and leave our destiny in his hands.
5) What the Thunder Said:-
            The fifth part of the poem begins with an account of the arrest of Christ at the hand of his enemies. They came in search of him with torches in their hands. Their faces were dirty with secret and red with anger. He was arrested in a garden and there was frosty silence after his arrest. He suffered greatest agony in palaces and prisons made of stones. Then the mobs shouted angrily as it was rumored with their shouts. Then at last Christ was crucified but at the very moment of his crucifixion mountains indicating that soon there will be rain.
            The second passage refers to the journey of in search of the Holy Grail. They search the kingdom of king fisher and climb the mountain on the top of which. It was believed the Holy Grail was kept in a chapel called the chapel perilous. It was a difficult journey they were all thirsty. There were only rocks all around them. It was a sandy road that went up the mountains in a winding zigzag manner. They were Rocky Mountains without any water. It is song, “Drip, drop, drip” etc. sounds very much like the sound produced by the falling of the drops of water at all.
            And the third passage describes the journey of two of the Disciples of Christ who are going to the Biblical waste land of Emmaus one of them asks his companion as to who was the third person walking by his side when he counted, there were only two, he and his companion. But when he looked ahead towards the white road, he always saw a third person walking by the side of his companion. This figure was well-wrapped in a brown cloak, and had a hood over its head, so that he could not say whether it was man or a woman.
            The forth passage describes the animals journey of the modern hearths and homes. A murmuring sound of lamentation is heard in the air, as if some women were mourning and crying. There are crowds of people wandering over endless plains. The earth is cracked at places and they stumble and fall. They are ringed only by the horizon. A city is seen over the mountains, which cracks, is broken, but again assumes a particular shape, and then bursts again, in the air at the time of dusk. The towers of churches or other big buildings of that city seem to be falling down. The city may be any of the unreal cities in the modern waste land.
            In the T.S.Eliots’ “The Waste Land”, there are five types of themes and the waste land ends with the words “Shantih, shantih, shantih”.