Friday, 6 April 2012

Assignment- The Victorian Literature
Topic- Theme in “Middlemarch”
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.
SEM – 2
Roll No - 17
Batch- 2011-12

Submitted to,
Dr.Dilip Barad
Bhavnagar University,

Themes in Middlemarch

Middlemarch is a highly unusual novel. Although it is primarily a Victorian novel, it has many characteristics typical to modern novels. Critical reaction to Eliot's masterpiece work was mixed. A common accusation leveled against it was its morbid, depressing tone. Many critics did not like Eliot's habit of scattering obscure literary and scientific allusions throughout the book. In their opinion a woman writer should not be so intellectual. Eliot hated the "silly, women novelists." In the Victorian era, women writers were generally confined to writing the stereotypical fantasies of the conventional romance fiction. Not only did Eliot dislike the constraints imposed on women's writing, she disliked the stories they were expected to produce. Her disdain for the tropes of conventional romance is apparent in her treatment of marriage between Rosamond and Lydgate. Both and Rosamond and Lydgate think of courtship and romance in terms of ideals taken directly from conventional romance. Another problem with such fiction is that marriage marks the end of the novel. Eliot goes through great effort to depict the realities of marriage.

Moreover, Eliot's many critics found Middlemarch to be too depressing for a woman writer. Eliot refused to bow to the conventions of a happy ending. An ill-advised marriage between two people who are inherently incompatible never becomes completely harmonious. In fact, it becomes a yoke. Such is the case in the marriages of Lydgate and Dorothea. Dorothea was saved from living with her mistake for her whole life because her elderly husband dies of a heart attack. Lydgate and Rosamond, on the other hand, married young.

Two major life choices govern the narrative of Middlemarch. One is marriage and the other is vocation. Eliot takes both choices very seriously. Short, romantic courtships lead to trouble, because both parties entertain unrealistic ideals of each other. They marry without getting to know one another. Marriages based on compatibility work better. Moreover, marriages in which women have a greater say also work better, such as the marriage between Fred and Mary. She tells him she will not marry if he becomes a clergyman. Her condition saves Fred from an unhappy entrapment in an occupation he doesn't like. Dorothea and Casaubon struggle continually because Casaubon attempts to make her submit to his control. The same applies in the marriage between Lydgate and Rosamond.

The choice of an occupation by which one earns a living is also an important element in the book. Eliot illustrates the consequences of making the wrong choice. She also details at great length the consequences of confining women to the domestic sphere alone. Dorothea's passionate ambition for social reform is never realized. She ends with a happy marriage, but there is some sense that her end as merely a wife and mother is a waste. Rosamond's shrewd capabilities degenerate into vanity and manipulation. She is restless within the domestic sphere, and her stifled ambitions only result in unhappiness for herself and her husband.

Eliot's refusal to conform to happy endings demonstrates the fact that Middlemarch is not meant to be entertainment. She wants to deal with real-life issues, not the fantasy world to which women writers were often confined. Her ambition was to create a portrait of the complexity of ordinary human life: quiet tragedies, petty character failings, small triumphs, and quiet moments of dignity. The complexity of her portrait of provincial society is reflected in the complexity of individual characters. The contradictions in the character of the individual person are evident in the shifting sympathies of the reader. One moment, we pity Casaubon, the next we judge him critically.

Middlemarch stubbornly refuses to behave like a typical novel. The novel is a collection of relationships between several major players in the drama, but no single one person occupies the center of the action. No one person can represent provincial life. It is necessary to include multiple people.

Particular Themes

[1] The Imperfection of Marriage

Most characters in Middlemarch marry for love rather than obligation, yet marriage still appears negative and unromantic. Marriage and the pursuit of it are central concerns in Middlemarch, but unlike in many novels of the time, marriage is not considered the ultimate source of happiness. Two examples are the failed marriages of Dorothea and Lydgate. Dorothea’s marriage fails because of her youth and of her disillusions about marrying a much older man, while Lydgate’s marriage fails because of irreconcilable personalities. Mr. and Mrs. Bulstrode also face a marital crisis due to his inability to tell her about the past, and Fred Vincy and Mary Garth also face a great deal of hardship in making their union. As none of the marriages reach a perfect fairytale ending.

[2] The Harshness of Social Expectations

The ways in which people conduct themselves and how the community judges them are closely linked in Middlemarch. When the expectations of the social community are not met, individuals often receive harsh public criticism. For example, the community judges Ladislaw harshly because of his mixed pedigree. Fred Vincy is almost disowned because he chooses to go against his family’s wishes and not join the clergy. It is only when Vincy goes against the wishes of the community by foregoing his education that he finds true love and happiness. Finally, Rosamond’s need for gentility and the desire to live up to social standards becomes her downfall.

[3] Self-Determination vs. Chance

In Middlemarch, self-determination and chance are not opposing forces but, rather, a complicated balancing act. When characters strictly adhere to a belief in either chance or self-determination, bad things happen. When Rosamond goes against the wishes of her husband and writes a letter asking for money from his relative, her act of self-determination puts Lydgate in an unsavory and tense situation coupled with a refusal to help. On the flip side, when Fred Vincy gambles away his money, relying solely on chance, he falls into debt and drags with him the people who trust him. Only when he steps away from gambling and decides not to go into the clergy do good things begin to happen for him. In particular, the character of Fare brother demonstrates the balance between fate and self-determination. This balance is exemplified in his educated gamble in the game of whist. Through a combination of skill and chance, he is able to win more often than not. His character strikes a balance between chance and his role in determining that fate.

The Romantic Literature


Assignment- The Romantic Literature
Topic- Themes, Motifs, and Symbols in Frankenstein
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.

SEM – 2

Roll No - 17
Batch- 2011-12  

Submitted to,

Dr.Dilip Barad

Bhavnagar University,


Themes Motifs and symbols in Frankenstein


[1] Dangerous Knowledge

The pursuits of knowledge is at the heart of Frankenstein, as Victor attempts to surge beyond accepted human limits and access the secret of life. Likewise, Robert Walton attempts to surpass previous human explorations by endeavoring to reach the North Pole. This ruthless pursuit of knowledge, of the light (see “Light and Fire”), proves dangerous, as Victor’s act of creation eventually results in the destruction of everyone dear to him, and Walton finds himself perilously trapped between sheets of ice.

[2] Sublime Nature

The sublime natural world, embraced by Romanticism (late eighteenth century to mid-nineteenth century) as a source of unrestrained emotional experience for the individual, initially offers characters the possibility of spiritual renewal. Mired in depression and remorse after the deaths of William and Justine, for which he feels responsible, Victor heads to the mountains to lift his spirits. Likewise, after a hellish winter of cold and abandonment, the monster feels his heart lighten as spring arrives. The influence of nature on mood is evident throughout the novel, but for Victor, the natural world’s power to console him wanes when he realizes that the monster will haunt him no matter where he goes. By the end, as Victor chases the monster obsessively, nature, in the form of the Arctic desert, functions simply as the symbolic backdrop for his primal struggle against the monster.

[3] Monstrosity

Obviously, this theme pervades the entire novel, as the monster lies at the center of the action. Eight feet tall and hideously ugly, the monster is rejected by society. However, his monstrosity results not only from his grotesque appearance but also from the unnatural manner of his creation, which involves the secretive animation of a mix of stolen body parts and strange chemicals.

The monster is only the most literal of a number of monstrous entities in the novel, including the knowledge that Victor used to create the monster (see “Dangerous Knowledge”). One can argue that Victor himself is a kind of monster, as his ambition, secrecy, and selfishness alienate him from human society. Ordinary on the outside, he may be the true “monster” inside, as he is eventually consumed by an obsessive hatred of his creation.

[4] Secrecy

Victor conceives of science as a mystery to be probed; its secrets, once discovered, must be jealously guarded. He considers M. Krempe, the natural philosopher he meets at Ingolstadt, a model scientist: “an uncouth man, but deeply imbued in the secrets of his science.” Victor’s entire obsession with creating life is shrouded in secrecy, and his obsession with destroying the monster remains equally secret until Walton hears his tale.

Whereas Victor continues in his secrecy out of shame and guilt, the monster is forced into seclusion by his grotesque appearance. Walton serves as the final confessor for both, and their tragic relationship becomes immortalized in Walton’s letters. In confessing all just before he dies, Victor escapes the stifling secrecy that has ruined his life; likewise, the monster takes advantage of Walton’s presence to forge a human connection, hoping desperately that at last someone will understand, and empathize with, his miserable existence.

[5] Texts

Frankenstein is overflowing with texts: letters, notes, journals, inscriptions, and books fill the novel, sometimes nestled inside each other, other times simply alluded to or quoted. Walton’s letters envelop the entire tale; Victor’s story fits inside Walton’s letters; the monster’s story fits inside Victor’s; and the love story of Felix and Safie and references to Paradise Lost fit inside the monster’s story. This profusion of texts is an important aspect of the narrative structure, as the various writings serve as concrete manifestations of characters’ attitudes and emotions.

Language plays an enormous role in the monster’s development. By hearing and watching the peasants, the monster learns to speak and read, which enables him to understand the manner of his creation, as described in Victor’s journal. He later leaves notes for Victor along the chase into the northern ice, inscribing words in trees and on rocks, turning nature itself into a writing surface.


[1] Passive Women

For a novel written by the daughter of an important feminist, Frankenstein is strikingly devoid of strong female characters. The novel is littered with passive women who suffer calmly and then expire: Caroline Beaufort is a self-sacrificing mother who dies taking care of her adopted daughter; Justine is executed for murder, despite her innocence; the creation of the female monster is aborted by Victor because he fears being unable to control her actions once she is animated; Elizabeth waits, impatient but helpless, for Victor to return to her, and she is eventually murdered by the monster. One can argue that Shelley renders her female characters so passive and subjects them to such ill treatment in order to call attention to the obsessive and destructive behavior that Victor and the monster exhibit.

[2] Abortion

The motif of abortion recurs as both Victor and the monster express their sense of the monster’s hideousness. About first seeing his creation, Victor says: “When I thought of him, I gnashed my teeth, my eyes became inflamed, and I ardently wished to extinguish that life which I had so thoughtlessly made.” The monster feels a similar disgust for him: “I, the miserable and the abandoned, am an abortion, to be spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on.” Both lament the monster’s existence and wish that Victor had never engaged in his act of creation.

The motif appears also in regard to Victor’s other pursuits. When Victor destroys his work on a female monster, he literally aborts his act of creation, preventing the female monster from coming alive. Figurative abortion materializes in Victor’s description of natural philosophy: “I at once gave up my former occupations; set down natural history and all its progeny as a deformed and abortive creation; and entertained the greatest disdain for a would-be science, which could never even step within the threshold of real knowledge.” As with the monster, Victor becomes dissatisfied with natural philosophy and shuns it not only as unhelpful but also as intellectually grotesque.


[1] Light and Fire

“What could not be expected in the country of eternal light?” asks Walton, displaying a faith in, and optimism about, science. In Frankenstein, light symbolizes knowledge, discovery, and enlightenment. The natural world is a place of dark secrets, hidden passages, and unknown mechanisms; the goal of the scientist is then to reach light. The dangerous and more powerful cousin of light is fire. The monster’s first experience with a still-smoldering flame reveals the dual nature of fire: he discovers excitedly that it creates light in the darkness of the night, but also that it harms him when he touches it.

Three Literary Terms

Literary Criticism
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.
SEM – 2
Roll No - 17
Batch- 2011-12  

Submitted to,
Dr.Dilip Barad
Bhavnagar University,

Three literary terms
[A] Alamkara

[1] Alamkara:

Alamkara is a figure of speech. Alamkara earliest and most sustained school; it studies literary language and assumes that the focus of literariness is the figures of speech. In the mode of figurative expression, in the grammatical accuracy and pleasantness of sound. This does not mean that meaning is ignored. In fact structural   taxonomies of different figures of speech are models of how meaning is cognized and how it is to be extracted from the text.
Bhamaha talks of the pleasure of multiplicity of meaning inherent in certain ‘Alamakara’ such as ‘Arthantaranyasa’, ‘Vibhavma’, and ‘Samasokti’. Bhamaha is the first ‘Alamkara’ poetician.
Bhamaha describes 35 figures of speech in ‘kavyamkara’. Others who continued the tradition are Dandin, Udbhata, Rudrata and Vamana. Finally in ‘Anandavarahana’, Alamkra was sought to be integrated with Dhavni and Rasa.
Alamkara is the dharma of poetry and not a mere embellishment. The categories of ‘Alamkara’ have been classified by different poetic into different kinds of systems. For example, Rudrata divides all Alamkara into two types those based on phonetic form and those based on meaning and then further sub classification of these leads to a total of sixty –eight Alamkara. Bhoja did not provide a fresh classification but added the third category – Ubhayalankara- to the two major types of Rudrata. Ruyyaka classified Alamkara into seven classes on the basis of how meaning is constituted.
[1] Lokanyaya [popular logic]
[2] Gudhartha pratiti [Inferences of meaning]
[3] Kavyanyaya [Logic of poetry]
[4] Viridha [opposition]
[5] Sadrasya [Similarly]
[6] Tarkanyaya [Reasoning, logic]
 [7] Srnkhalabadha [Chain-bound]
And A Mammata described sixty-one figures of speech and groups them into seven types.
(1)   Vyatiraeka (dissimilitude)
(2)   Aprastuta  Prasnsa ( indirect description)
(3)   Samuccaya
(4)   Rupaka ( Metaphor)
(5)   Upama ( Simile)
(6)   Dipaka ( Stringed Figure)
(7)   Virodha(contradiction)

    Like these the number of Alamkaras identified increased from bharata’s original four to sixty one distinguished by Mammata. This taxonomy is not mere ingenuity. It represents global and local taxonomies, a refined analysis and classification of what ultimately are modes of perfection. The different classificatory system can be seen to be based on the following perameters.

(1)   Grammer ( samasokti)
(2)   Value of figures
(3)   Objects with which compared(Upamana)
(4)   Syntax
(5)   Symantic basis, such as a similarity.
(6)   Objects compared(Upmeye)
(7)   Coherence with known facts or otherwise(Sangati)

[2] Dhvani: 
             Dhvani is also a most important theory in Rasa theory. Dhavni theory is created by Anandavardhana, and he considers suggestion, the indirectly evoked meaning as the characteristic property of literary discourses. An s articulated in Dhvanyaloka, dhavni becomes an all embrocating principle that explains the structure and functions of the other major elements of literature.
            All the literary theorists in the tradition found the combination of rasa and dhavni theories both adequate and sufficient to analyze the constitution of meaning in literature.  In Dhvanyaloka, Anandavardhana has presented a structural analysis of indirect lliterary meaning.
            Anandavardhana has classified different kinds of suggestion and defined them by identifying the nature of suggestion in each. Anandavardhana is uses the term dhavni to designate the universe of suggestion. He is openly indebted to Bhartruhari’s spota theory and he acknowledge in Dhvanayalokya. Where as Krishna notes that he has chosen the term dhavni following the definite use of that term by the grammarians to denote.
(1)   The sound structure of words (sabda)
(2)   The semantic aspects of sabda, the vyanjakas of suggestions and
(3)   “The revealed or suggested meaning as such and the process of suggestion involved.”   
Dhavni theory is a theory of meaning of symbolism and this principle leads to the poetry of suggestion being accepted as the highest kind of poetry.
Dhvani is the method, the means for achieving or evoking Rasa, which is the effect of suggestion.                                                                                                                                                   [3] Auchitya:
Ksemendra made ‘Auchitya’ the defines Auchitya as the property of an expression being an exact and appropriate analogue of the expressed. The theory of property or appropriateness claims that in all aspect of literary composition. There is the possibility of a perfect, the, most appropriate choice of subject, of ideas, of words, of devices as such, it has affinities with Longinus’s theory of the sublime.
The concept of propriety with reference to custom, subject, characters and sentiment recourse in almost all theorists and is often discussed in association with figures of speech, guan, dosa and rites.
Anandavardhana relates this principle specifically to rasa. It has been used for propriety in delineating bhavas according to character and in the choice of margas.
            According to the speaker, content and type of literary composition areas, locations or sites of literary compositions where the concept of Auchitya is pertinent.  

Assignment- Indian Writing in English
Topic- Themes in “The Shadow Line”
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.
SEM – 2
Batch- 2011-12  

Submitted to,
Dr.Dilip Barad
Bhavnagar University,

Themes of “The Shadow lines”

In the Shadow lines, she interrogates the aestheticism of colonial and nationalist historiography by, on the one hand, emphasize the fictions that people create their lines, and on the other recording the vivid and verifiable that do not necessarily correspondent with the documented version of history. As the narrator say, ‘Stories are all there are to in, it was just a question which one you chose.” As  and whom like Amitav Ghosh’s the shadow line, Salman Rushdie’s The Satanic verses and Anita Desai’s In custody show , the Indian novel in English is exploration of the historical transformations of community life, instead of  drawing Jameson “portraits’ of sensitive individuals, under the  community, the individual under  the sway of larger movements of history.”
The author creates a realm that melds pre independence India, Brittan in the Second World War and post independence India. Amitav Ghosh undertakes the task of establishing the futility of all sorts of barrios, or ‘Shadow lines”. As one of the subaltern studies scholars, shall mayoral, reminds us, during the partition of Indian various state authorities rigidified borders and boundaries that were once flexible and people were coerced to for one nation or the other, India or Pakistan, or one religious identity or the other, Hindu or Muslim.
 The Shadow lines, however, is especially notable because it the agonies and ruptures of that period in such poignant detail, It also underlines the challenges of cultural dislocation and ambiguous citizenship, and highlights the illusions of militant nationalisms.
In this novel, the unnamed narrator’s nationalist grandmother, Thamma, articulates an unambiguous understanding of the violence in the making of nations in the shadow lines when she takes about the creation of Britain.
Amitav Ghosh’s novel narrators the story of three generations of the unnamed narrators family. Spread over Dhaka, Calcutta, and London. The narrative begins in colonial India and concludes just after the creation of East Pakistan in the 60s.the story highlights private and public events and their significances as they bring the characters into relief. The shadow lines describes a period that  goes back to colonial India, prior to the  birth of  the narrators, a cousin of the narrators father, Tridib, has withes the gruesome  partition of India and the corollary creation of Pakistan in 1947.
The novel begins with a passage about the happenings in colonial India”  in 1939 thirteen years before  I was born ,my  fathers aunt mayadebi, went to England  with her  husband and her son , Tridib”  the plot  begins in the  second world war ends in 1964 with the political  upheaval caused by the outbreak  of communal riots in  India and Pakistan.  
The story revolves around Tridib, who is taken to England by his parents in 1939, at the age of eight and then in 1964 dies a victim of communal frenzy in Dhaka. As the opening  sentence  indicates, the beginning of the narrative takes  place thirteen  years  before the narrators birth , and  thus his knowledge  of the ravages of  the second world war comes to him through  Tridib’s  recapitulations. The borders that were at the time carved out by the authorities at the time of partition have led to further brutally in the form of those  rats , programs , and organized historical  distortions and cultural  depletions  with which the history  of independent India is replete. Hindu as well as Muslims leaders.
The shadow lines are the crossing of frontiers of nationality, culture, and language in three countries, India, East Pakistan [Now Bangladesh] and England. To that list the author’s attempts to cross the barriers of citizenship as a self conscious political philosophy. Amitav Ghosh makes the reader aware of the humanist response that transcends national boundaries and barriers.  

Five Types of Cultural Studies

Assignment- Cultural Studies
Topic- Five Types of Cultural Studies
Name- Sumra Jitendra V.
SEM - 2 
Roll No - 17
Batch- 2011-12

Submitted to,
Dr.Dilip Barad
Bhavnagar University,

Five Types of Cultural Studies

[1]British Cultural materialism

Matthew Arnold sought to redline the “givens” of British culture. To appreciate the importance of this revision of “culture” we must situate it within the controlling myth of social and political reality of the British Empire upon which the sun never set, an ideology left over from the previous century. In modern Britain two trajectories for “Culture” developed one led back to the past and the feudal hierarchies that ordered community in the past; here, culture acted in its sacred function as preserver of the past. Cultural materialism began in earnest in the 1950s with the work of F.R. Leavis sought to use the educational system to distribute literary knowledge and appreciation more widely ; Lea vices promoted the “great tradition “ of Shakespeare and Milton to improve the moral sensibilities of a wider range of readers than just the elite.

Cultural materialists also turned to the more humanized and even spiritual insights of the great students of Rabelais and Dostoevsky, Russain formalist Bakhtn, especially his amplification of the dialogic form of communal, individual and social.

[2]New Historicism:

New Historicism focuses on the way literature expresses-and sometimes disguises-power relations at work in the social context in which the literature was produced, often this involves making connections between a literary work and other kinds of texts. Literature is often shown to “negotiate” conflicting power interests. New historicism has made its biggest mark on literary studies of the Renaissances and Romantic periods and has revised motions of literature as privileged, apolitical writing. Much new historicism focuses on the marginalization of subjects such as those identified as witches, the insane, heretics, vagabonds, and political prisoners.

[3]American Multiculturalism:

The idea that American identity is vested in a commitment to core values expressed in the American Creed and the ideals of Exceptionalism raises a fundamental concern that has been the source of considerable debate. Can American identity be meaningfully established by a commitment to core values and ideals among a population that is becoming increasingly heterogeneous? Since the 1960s, scholars and political activists, recognizing that the “melting pot” concept fails to acknowledge that immigrant groups do not, and should not, entirely abandon their distinct identities, embraced multiculturalism and diversity. Racial and ethnic groups maintain many of their basic traits and cultural attributes, while at the same time their orientations change through marriage and interactions with other groups in society. The American Studies curriculum serves to illustrate this shift in attitude. The curriculum, which had for decades relied upon the “melting pot” metaphor as an organizing framework, began to employ the alternative notion of the “American mosaic.” Multiculturalism, in the context of the “American mosaic,” celebrates the unique cultural heritage of racial and ethnic groups, some of whom seek to preserve their native languages and lifestyles. In a sense, individuals can be Americans and at the same time claim other identities, including those based on racial and ethnic heritage, gender, and sexual preference.

[4] Postmodernism and popular culture:

Postmodernism and Popular Culture brings together eleven recent essays by Angela McRobbie in a collection which deals with the issues which have dominated cultural studies over the last ten years.
A key theme is the notion of post modernity as a space for social change and political potential. McRobbie explores everyday life as a site of immense social and psychic complexity to which she argues that cultural studies scholars must return through ethnic and empirical work; the sound of living voices and spoken language. She also argues for feminists working in the field to continue to question the place and meaning of feminist theory in a postmodern society. In addition, she examines the new youth cultures as images of social change and signs of profound social transformation.
Bringing together complex ideas about cultural studies today in a lively and accessible format.

[1] Postmodernism:

Postmodernism describes a range of conceptual frameworks and ideologies that are defined in opposition to those commonly attributed to modernism and modernist notions of knowledge and science, as, materialism, realism, positivism, formalism, structuralism, and reductionism. Postmodernist approaches are critical of the possibility of objective knowledge of the real world, and consider the ways in which social dynamics such as power and hierarchy affect human conceptualizations of the world to have important effects on the way knowledge is constructed and used. In contrast to the modernist paradigm, postmodernist thought often emphasize idealism, constructivism, relativism, pluralism and skepticism in its approaches to knowledge and understanding.

It is not a philosophical movement in itself, but rather, incorporates a number of philosophical and critical methods that can be considered ‘postmodern’; the most familiar include feminism and post-structuralism. Put another way, postmodernism is not a method of doing philosophy, but rather a way of approaching traditional ideas and practices in non-traditional ways that deviate from pre-established super structural modes. This has caused difficulties in defining what postmodernism actually means or should mean and therefore remains a complex and controversial concept, which continues to be debated. The idea of the postmodern gained momentum through to the 1950s before dominating literature, art and the intellectual scene of the 1960s.Postmodernism's origins are generally accepted as having been conceived in art around the end of the nineteenth century as a reaction to the stultifying legacy of modern art and continued to expand into other disciplines during the early twentieth century as a reaction against modernism in general.

[2] Popular culture:

Popular culture is the totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, memes, images and other phenomena that are preferred by an informal consensus within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century. Heavily influenced by mass media, this collection of ideas permeates the everyday lives of the society.

Popular culture is often viewed as being trivial and dumped-down in order to find consensual acceptance throughout the mainstream. As a result, it comes under heavy criticism from various non-mainstream sources (most notably religious groups and countercultural groups) which deem it superficial, consumerist, sensationalist, and corrupted

The term "popular culture" was coined in the 19th century or earlier refers to the education and general "cult redness" of the lower classes, as was delivered in an address at the England. The term began to assume the meaning of a culture of the lower classes separate from (and sometimes opposed to) "true education" towards the end of the century, a usage that became established by the antebellum period. The current meaning of the term, culture for mass consumption, especially originating in the United States, is established by the end of World War II the abbreviated form "pop culture" dates to the 1960s.

[5]Postcolonial Studies:

The critical nature of postcolonial theory entails destabilizing Western ways of thinking, therefore creating space for the subaltern or marginalized groups, to speak and produce alternatives to dominant discourse. Often, the term post colonialism is taken literally, to mean the period of time after colonialism. This however, is problematic because the ‘once-colonized world’ is full of “contradictions, of half-finished processes, of confusions, of hybridist, and liminalities” .In other words, it is important to accept the plural nature of the word post colonialism, as it does not simply refer to the period after the colonial era. By some definitions, post colonialism can also be seen as a continuation of colonialism, albeit through different or new relationships concerning power and the control/production of knowledge. Due to these similarities, it is debated whether to hyphenate post colonialism as to symbolize that we have fully moved beyond colonialism.

Post-colonialist thinkers recognize that many of the assumptions which underlie the "logic" of colonialism are still active forces today. Some postcolonial theorists make the argument that studying both dominant knowledge sets and marginalized ones as binary opposites perpetuates their existence as homogenous entities. Homi K. Bhabha feels the postcolonial world should valorize spaces of mixing; spaces where truth and authenticity move aside for ambiguity. This space of hybridist, he argues, offers the most profound challenge to colonialism. Critiques that Bhabha ignores Spaak’s stated usefulness of essentialism have been put forward. Reference is made to essentialisms' potential usefulness. An organized voice provides a more powerful challenge to dominant knowledge - whether in academia or active protests.